AsyncTask enables proper and easy use of the UI thread. This class allows to perform background operations and publish results on the UI thread without having to manipulate threads and/or handlers.
AsyncTask is designed to be a helper class around
Handler and does not constitute a generic threading framework. AsyncTasks should ideally be used for short operations (a few seconds at the most.) If you need to keep threads running for long periods of time,it is highly recommended you use the various APIs provided by the java.util.concurrent package such as
An asynchronous task is defined by a computation that runs on a background thread and whose result is published on the UI thread. An asynchronous task is defined by 3 generic types, called Params, Progress and Result, and 4 steps, called onPreExecute, doInBackground, onProgressUpdate and onPostExecute.
For more information about using tasks and threads, read the Processes and Threads developer guide.
AsyncTask must be subclassed to be used. The subclass will override at least one method (
doInBackground(Params...)), and most often will override a second one (
Here is an example of subclassing:
Once created, a task is executed very simply:
The three types used by an asynchronous task are the following:
- Params, the type of the parameters sent to the task upon execution.
- Progress, the type of the progress units published during the background computation.
- Result, the type of the result of the background computation.
Not all types are always used by an asynchronous task. To mark a type as unused, simply use the type
private class MyTask extends AsyncTask
When an asynchronous task is executed, the task goes through 4 steps:
onPreExecute(), invoked on the UI thread before the task is executed. This step is normally used to setup the task, for instance by showing a progress bar in the user interface.
doInBackground(Params...), invoked on the background thread immediately after
onPreExecute()finishes executing. This step is used to perform background computation that can take a long time. The parameters of the asynchronous task are passed to this step. The result of the computation must be returned by this step and will be passed back to the last step. This step can also use
publishProgress(Progress...)to publish one or more units of progress. These values are published on the UI thread, in the
onProgressUpdate(Progress...), invoked on the UI thread after a call to
publishProgress(Progress...). The timing of the execution is undefined. This method is used to display any form of progress in the user interface while the background computation is still executing. For instance, it can be used to animate a progress bar or show logs in a text field.
onPostExecute(Result), invoked on the UI thread after the background computation finishes. The result of the background computation is passed to this step as a parameter.
A task can be cancelled at any time by invoking
cancel(boolean). Invoking this method will cause subsequent calls to
isCancelled() to return true. After invoking this method,
onCancelled(Object), instead of
onPostExecute(Object) will be invoked after
doInBackground(Object) returns. To ensure that a task is cancelled as quickly as possible, you should always check the return value of
isCancelled() periodically from
doInBackground(Object), if possible (inside a loop for instance.)
There are a few threading rules that must be followed for this class to work properly:
- The AsyncTask class must be loaded on the UI thread. This is done automatically as of
- The task instance must be created on the UI thread.
execute(Params...)must be invoked on the UI thread.
- Do not call
- The task can be executed only once (an exception will be thrown if a second execution is attempted.)
AsyncTask guarantees that all callback calls are synchronized in such a way that the following operations are safe without explicit synchronizations.
- Set member fields in the constructor or
onPreExecute(), and refer to them in
- Set member fields in
doInBackground(Params...), and refer to them in
When first introduced, AsyncTasks were executed serially on a single background thread. Starting with
DONUT, this was changed to a pool of threads allowing multiple tasks to operate in parallel. Starting with
HONEYCOMB, tasks are executed on a single thread to avoid common application errors caused by parallel execution.
If you truly want parallel execution, you can invoke
executeOnExecutor(java.util.concurrent.Executor, Object) with